BRC Proposal

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2011 proposal instructions

Background on Star Formation

Luisa's tutorial on star formation from cool cosmos

Notes from a U of Oregon lecture on star formation ... not as good as Luisa's lecture notes but a good launching point ...

A more detailed explanation of Star Formation from a textbook. There's more math here than we'll need. File:SF.pdf --CJohnson 11:05, 1 February 2011 (PST)

Target Selection

The list of sources that Lori suggests we consider are here:

Let's collect information on literature references for each of these. Look in both ADS and SIMBAD for papers and previously known sources within about 30' 10' of these positions.

Help on: Basic Literature Searching -- Advanced Literature Searching -- Getting data from other wavelengths -- Guide to NITARP participants for use of the wiki

From Marcella

BRC 34 1 proposal to study by Garmire, nothing on SIMBAD

BRC 36 3 articles on ADS two are on star formation but none on SIMBAD

BRC 38 1 article by Choudhury which identified 45 YSO's

BRC 31 nothing on both

BRC 27 Chauhan observed BR 27 and came up with some YSO candidates and a catalog(?) entry on SIMBAD.

From John

BRC27 through Google Scholar ...

Ogura. "Triggered Star Formation associated with HII Regions." [1]. ASI Conference Series. 2010, Vol. 1, pp 19–25.

Ogura, Sugitani and Pickles. "H-alpha Emission Stars and Herbig-Haro Objects in the Vicinity of Bright-Rimmed Clouds." [2] AJ. 123: 2597-2626, 2002 May.

Morgan, et al. "A Radio and Mid-Infrared Survey of Northern Bright-Rimmed Clouds." [3] astro-ph 0407167v1.

Soares and Bica. "The Embedded Star Clusters in the Nebulae NGC 2327 and BRC 27 in Canis Majoris R1." [4] A&A. 388, 172{178 (2002).

From Diane




ADS: Chauhan; Simbad: 14 entries (I checked them, not all seem to be on this exact area)

Images: the Aladdin Sky Atlas (DSS2 & Simbad) shows the image fairly bright where the B & W is dark. Kicking in the IRAS data only makes 5 IR targets show up, plus the cloud near the bottom of the image.

Where are all the targets & YSOs that are mentioned by Chauhan? Chauhan abstract (2009) “Triggered star formation and evolution of T-Tauri stars in and around bright-rimmed clouds.” From Chauhan’s data tables 4 & 6 I gleaned the following nuggets of information: table4.dat 85 133 Dereddened magnitude, colors, age and mass of the YSOs associated with the BRCs; Last entry from table 4 and Table 6 each say this: Cl II YSO class (meta.code.class) (CLASS_CODE)

Coordinates for this cloud come up as: 07 03 58.7 -11 23 19 IRAS 07016-1118 slightly south and to the right of the main image of BRC27

From data Table 6: IRAC photometric magnitudes of the disk bearing candidates in BRCs 2, 27 and 13/14 (are we interested in examining this?)




Busy field; Cloud in center of Aladin Applet image.(right on these coordinates) surrounded by Emission line stars, HH, and radio sources, and an X-ray source. The frame completely fills up when 2MASS is applied.

DSS2 shows a thick cloud. Simbad shows the sources described above.




0 ADS abstracts; 0 Simbad citations No object listed at (or near) these precise coordinates, however, AllSky Optical images reveal the clouds that were of interest to Lori. Parts of the cloud are labeled. The DSS2.POSSII image reveals 2 star clusters, a Cloud Dark Nebula, and 2 IR sources (one above & slightly to the right of the center of the image) Many hits on 2MASS




3 results from ADS: 1 abstract, 2 Chandra proposals; 0 results from Simbad, however, Aladin applet Simbad identifies (and IRAS-IRIS reveals) 6 YSO’s, 10 IR sources, 2 Mol Cld, Rf Neb, Br Neb, Dk Neb, stars in nebulae, and stars in clouds.

This looks like an interesting field. Lots going on (too much?) ADS: Garmire and Getman are both proposing to use Chandra to study this area. (x-rays)

BRC38 (is this SFO 38?)



Triggered Star Formation and Young Stellar Population in Bright-rimmed Cloud SFO 38 by Choudhury, Rumpa; Mookerjea, Bhaswati; Bhatt, H. C. [5]

They have identified 45 YSO’s in this area, although I only counted 19 in the image I was able to pull up. They studied the area with a variety of instruments and wavelengths (including Spitzer). This seems like a fairly comprehensive study.

--- This is a fabulous start, Team BRC. Pats on the back to all :) --CJohnson 18:16, 6 February 2011 (PST)

From Luisa

OK, just for comparison, here is a walkthrough of what i'd do, but for just one of the objects. from above -- brc27 07h04m07.8s -11d16m43s. search in SIMBAD, by position, for objects within 10 arcmin. 73 objects returned. Some emission stars (EM*LkHa 221 means emission star, from the Lick Halpha survey -- a young star!), a star cluster, some IRAS sources (possibly but not necessarily young stars), a Lynds Dark Nebula (cloud dark in the optical), sources whose name suggests affiliation with BRC27 ("OSP2002 BRC27 xx" sources), x-ray sources (RXJ sources), and several things SIMBAD flags as just emission stars ("Em*", e.g. likely young stars). Clicking on any of the names leads me to an information page tied to that object.

The x-ray source 1RXS J070409.5-111707 is closest to the position i asked for. no literature refs on that. Next closest is EM* LkHA 221. There are four synonyms for this one, and 8 references.

2004PASJ...56..313K -- 13^CO (J = 1-0) survey toward of molecular clouds toward the Monoceros and Canis Major Region. -- KIM B.G., KAWAMURA A., YONEKURA Y. and FUKUI Y. there are data tables, but this is a radio survey. unlikely to have much information on the point sources.
2003A&A...399..141M -- Merged catalogue of reflection nebulae. -- MAGAKIAN T.Y. hm. catalog of nebulae? probably not much information on the pt srcs, but worth tracking down.
2002A&A...388..172S -- The embedded star clusters in the nebulae NGC 2327 and BRC 27 in Canis Majoris R1. -- SOARES J.B. and BICA E. [6] this one actually uses the term "BRC 27" in the title and talks about stars. definitely look at this one.
1999MNRAS.310..175T -- The Cepheid distance to M96 and the Hubble constant. -- TANVIR N.R., FERGUSON H.C. and SHANKS T. cepheids and the hubble constant?? unlikely to have much to do with the thing we care about. why is this crosslisted? might look it up just to solve that mystery.
1992ApJS...78..239W -- A catalog of co-added IRAS fluxes or Orion population stars. -- WEAVER W.B. and JONES G. [7] Hm. reanalysis of IRAS data. and Orion population means young. look this one up.
1990ApJS...74..575W -- A catalog of pre-main-sequence emission-line stars with IRAS source associations. -- WEINTRAUB D.A. [8] DING DING DING. likely to summarize lots of young stars here. this is likely to be the first one i go grab.
1988LicOB1111....1H -- Third catalog of emission-line stars of the Orion population. -- HERBIG G.H. and BELL K.R. this is just a catalog. worth looking up to see what is known (or was known in 1988) about stars in this region.
1986PASJ...38..395W -- Emission-line stars in the Canis Major star-formation region. -- WIRAMIHARDJA S.D., KOGURE T., NAKANO M. and YOSHIDA S. [9] another DING DING DING. likely to summarize lots of young stars here.

Next closest object is [C74] 81. 3 references.

1999MNRAS.310..210S -- The stellar composition of the star formation region CMa R1 - I. Results from new photometric and spectroscopic classifications. -- SHEVCHENKO V.S., EZHKOVA O.V., IBRAHIMOV M.A., VAN DEN ANCKER M.E. and TJIN A DJIE H.R.E. [10] this one is worth grabbing too. stellar composition of the SFR also suggests list of objects.
1974A&A....37..229C -- A study of stellar association Canis Majoris OB 1. -- CLARIA J.J. pretty old. probably not worth grabbing? check abs.
1974AJ.....79.1022C -- Investigation of a Milky Way region in Canis Majoris. -- CLARIA J.J. Also old. check abs.

Next closest object is NGC 2327, a cluster. three references.

2009A&A...506..711G -- Star formation history of Canis Major R1. I. Wide-field X-ray study of the young stellar population. -- GREGORIO-HETEM J., MONTMERLE T., RODRIGUES C.V., MARCIOTTO E., PREIBISCH T. and ZINNECKER H. [11] X-rays can indicate youth (see my Finding cluster members page), and "young stars." get this one.
2003A&A...397..177B -- A Catalogue of infrared star clusters and stellar groups. -- BICA E., DUTRA C.M. and BARBUY B. [12] another promising one.
2002A&A...388..172S -- The embedded star clusters in the nebulae NGC 2327 and BRC 27 in Canis Majoris R1. -- SOARES J.B. and BICA E. already found above!

Next closest object is HRW 16 -- one reference to an early-type emission star paper. possibly worth tracking down, unlikely to be terribly fruitful.

Then the next shows you the fallibility of SIMBAD -- NGC 2327 appears listed again, with a different name (and possibly different references!)...

I scrolled down to the first "[OSP2002] BRC 27 23" reference. That resolves to 2002AJ....123.2597O -- H{alpha} emission stars and Herbig-Haro objects in the vicinity of bright-rimmed clouds. -- OGURA K., SUGITANI K. and PICKLES A. This is also likely to be a very good paper to examine, including getting the data tables!

I ignored the rest of the list, on the assumption for now that I've probably found most of the significant results. If, however, you ask SIMBAD to plot the sources up, the position I asked for is relatively deficient of sources; there are a bunch more sources to the south. My guess is that the position as given is a little off from what it really should be. It will be worth doing a more exhaustive SIMBAD search once we pick a target and have a better fix on exactly what regions are covered by the Spitzer obs.

I went to ADS next and searched with "BRC 27" (in quotes) in the abstract field. The first hit is the Soares and Bica paper above. The rest are spurious hits from arXiv. Go back to the ADS search page, and turn off arXiv searching, leaving just "astronomy" checked. Search again. The second hit (2010 ApJ 717 658) has no "BRC 27" that actually appears in the abstract. The 3rd is a astrobio article. the 4th is a chandra prop (no content there). the 5th is Chauhan et al., 2009 MNRAS 396, 964. Title sounds promising. Abstract sounds promising. Put this on the list to retrieve and read. After that, there are radio papers, proposals, AAS posters... and the quality of the relevance goes down. Quit this for now and look at the papers I've got so far.