CG4 Proposal

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Previous Examples

All of the previous proposals are online, linked from the teams' Cool Cosmos page. All of the programs are listed here: and if you go to any of the team pages, you'll see lots of things, including a link to the proposal.

BUT PLEASE NOTE that all of these past proposals were OBSERVING proposals and you are writing an ARCHIVAL proposal.

Recommended Contents

In general, good proposals should have:

  • introduction and context. how you picked the target(s) and why. background on subject and target. educated guesses on what you might find.
  • detailed information on what data are available, and what you plan to do with it (e.g. much more than "i'm sure spitzer observed this at some point"). how you are going to reduce the data. kind of analysis planned.
  • education/outreach plan. what your team will do, individually or together.

You don't have page limits, but nor do you want the review committee annoyed because you made them read a book.... or tiny fonts. A professor in grad school always used to annoy me with broad essay questions followed by the instruction "Be brief but specific." But he's right ...

Background information

example table

Table example example2 example3
line2 line2 line2

Identifiers (aliases) for CG 4 ... BHR 21, Sandqvist 103, FEST 2-30, DCld 259.4-12.7

I found this by typing CG4 into SIMBAD. The results were in the middle of the page. Scrolling down further, there's a list of 20 articles in which CG 4 is mentioned.

Talk to you on Wednesday! --chj

My Plan to continue Lit. search--Mallory 23:35, 11 January 2010 (PST) is to finish SIMBAD, then go to ADS and to find a way to confirm and quantify lots! of IR present in suspected YSOs in CG4(probably by opacity class) and little UV/max not to exceed a threshold to be determined; don't want the object to be a middle-aged star already.

Is it the group's intention to consider locations outside of CG4, which could be cluster members?

--Mallory 23:28, 11 January 2010 (PST)Carolyn

In a search through SIMBAD for CG 4 info, some interesting info and unanswered questions have emerged.

If a gaseous region were collapsing due to a radiation-driven implosion, what's to stop it from rebounding back out, and how would we know the mechanism had occurred? Maybe by the length of tails (also created by outward pressures)? Is this a safe assumption? There seems to be a conflict between different analyses as to whether tails can be traced by CO(12) spectra. How to resolve? If collapse/expansion, and rotation can occur all in the same region, are there any tools other than redshift to sort out what is happening? Interesting that there could be more than one "Center of Influence' in a region, i.e. massive star,--Mallory 15:48, 12 January 2010 (PST) whose radiation influences the CG's/YSO's evolution.

Carolyn, I moved your latest research here to the Background Section, and took it out of the Education section. Nice Job in finding information. - Viv

Hey. No Fair. Carolyn is thinking while she reads! Nice work Carolyn. 14 jan 10 --klm

The following is a summary of info describing the CG4 environment, and includes a small amount of info from other areas qualitatively similar to the Gum Nebula area. The environmental characteristics listed will describe the environment needed for star formation, confirmed by the presence of YSOs in the--Mallory 22:24, 13 January 2010 (PST) region:

-cg4 resides in the Gum Nebula, within the constellation Puppis, adjacent to Vela. This area is 1,300 LY distant from Solar System, and even visually, is laced with plentiful clouds of gas and dust.

-using appropriate wavelengths, should do a search for nearby massive O & B stars (typical neighborhood bullies)to determine the possibility of photoevaporation of coalescing dust and gas taking place in newly formed stars, and if so, switch area being investigated. Cometary Globule tails all coinciding in direction they're pointing is another indication that newly forming stars are being photoevaporated by nearby large star radiation/emissions. There can be a number of Centers of Influence near a newly forming Star Cluster, check this optically, in radio, and in both UV and Xray.

-Note that radiation driven implosion also occurs, as well as collapse due to gravitational attraction. Do muiltiwavelength study. Radio wavelengths especially.

-Expect IR excess in area of star formation (Universal Gas Law; volume mass forming star decreases/temp increase) Necessary to determine the average value for IR around a small mass Main Sequence star, so we know what amount defines 'excess IR'.

- If head of cometary nebula is opaque in visible wavelengths, it can be assumed that sufficient gas and dust exist in the nebula to create new stars. Thus, opacity/Opacity Class, is an indicator of star-forming region BUT needs to be quantified and observed in the appropriate wavelengths/optical photometry/MIPS data probably.

- Information about contraction/expansion/rotation, can be obtained from red-blue shift observations. This is necessary information! Personal question; could implosion produce an outward rebound?

-Spectroscopic info can reveal the age/stage of development of baby stars uncovered in this study. Use MIPS data.

-To determine which stars visible in same area are members of the same CG4 Cluster, see common age/convection % compared to radiation & conduction, speed of rotation (need to know axis of rotation to determine blue-red shift anyway), variability, spatial location, and spatial motion of all the local stars/i.e. do they seem to be moving as a group/cluster. All of these qualities are indicators of the age of a YSO.

-Excess IR (define 'excess' as variation from average IR emission from a similar mass young Main Sequence star IR average emissions) typifies newly forming stars, such as what we are looking for in CG4. Conflict in literature about UV emissions; forming star should have almost none/core processes do not yet produce, but very young stars can have a lot of UV emission due to rapid rotation. Supposedly, really young stars have low Magnetic Field.

-Another variable of which to be aware, is the number of YSOs in a given area. Too many, and only those with largest relative mass will grow to be stars, since largest mass baby stars have the gravitational-strength advantage/capture the most infalling gas+dust. (Think nestfull of eagle eggs, which hatch at different times.)

The sources listed below indicate that these are the qualities in nebulae which affect Star Formation.

Carolyn Mallory

Sources Used to Gather This information Include but are Not Limited to: SIMBAD, ic 2118, ADS, CoolWiki Finding Cluster Members, Spitzer Archives, Infrared Handbook by Wolfe & Zissie.

here is the paper from serena from 2005 --Rebull 15:57, 13 January 2010 (PST)

Title: Low-Mass Star Formation in the Gum Nebula: The CG 30/31/38 Complex Authors: Kim, Jinyoung Serena; Walter, Frederick M.; Wolk, Scott J. Affiliation: AA(Department of Physics and Astronomy, State University of New York at Stony Brook, NY 11794-3800; Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721-0065.; Visiting Astronomer, Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under contact with the National Science Foundation.), AB(Department of Physics and Astronomy, State University of New York at Stony Brook, NY 11794-3800, AC(Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138.) Publication: The Astronomical Journal, Volume 129, Issue 3, pp. 1564-1579. (AJ Homepage) Publication Date:03/2005 Origin:UCP AJ Keywords:Stars: Circumstellar Matter, ISM: H II Regions, ISM: Globules, Stars: Formation, Stars: Low-Mass, Brown Dwarfs, Stars: Pre-Main-Sequence DOI:10.1086/428002 Bibliographic Code:2005AJ....129.1564K

Abstract We present photometric and spectroscopic results for the low-mass pre-main-sequence (PMS) stars with spectral types K-M in the cometary globule (CG) 30/31/38 complex. We obtained multiobject high-resolution spectra for the targets selected as possible PMS stars from multiwavelength photometry. We identified 11 PMS stars brighter than V=16.5 with ages <~5 Myr at a distance of approximately 200 pc. The spatial distribution of the PMS stars, CG clouds, and ionizing sources (O stars and supernova remnants) suggests a possible triggered origin of the star formation in this region. We confirm the youth of the photometrically selected PMS stars using the lithium abundances. The radial velocities of the low-mass PMS stars are consistent with those of the cometary globules. Most of the PMS stars show weak Hα emission with Wλ(Hα)<10 Å. Only one out of the 11 PMS stars shows a moderate near-IR excess, which suggests a short survival time (t<5 Myr) of circumstellar disks in this star-forming environment. In addition, we find five young late-type stars and one Ae star that have no obvious relation to the CG 30/31/38 complex. We also discuss a possible scenario of the star formation history in the CG 30/31/38 region.

--Some background papers I found:

Article Comments Comments on Comments
Kinematics of the Young Stellar Objects associated with the Cometary Globules in the Gum Nebula

Authors: Rumpa Choudhury, H. C. Bhatt (Submitted on 26 Nov 2008)

Best I've found so far: Article on motion of YSOs in CGs in Gum Nebula (including CG4). There is a list of YSOs in the Gum Nebula, including 8 in or near CG4. In addition to the list, there's an outside chance it might help us determine if YSOs are members of the cluster or if we kick them off the island. (Note: I didn't say it was good - only the best I'd found so far...) Thumbs up
Star formation in Bok globules and low-mass clouds. V : Hα emission stars near Sa 101, CG13 and CG22

Author(s)REIPURTH B. (1) ; PETERSSON B. ;

Maybe useful. I think this is an early (or maybe the first) article establishing low-mass star formation in CG4. There is a list of objects, but not many in CG4. It is cited by others. Kind of old. (Reipurth is pretty big into this stuff - editor of The Star Formation Newsletter has publications from 1960s to today) Thumbs up (I think)
Low Mass Star Formation in the Gum Nebula

Limited use. This is a paper presentation by Serena Kim for Astronomical Society of the Pacific. It compares another nearby region to CG4. May be useful to as a gague for how many YSOs we might find in CG4???? Qualified Thumbs up
Star formation in Bok globules and low-mass clouds


Limited use. Older article - cited by Kim about CG4 YSOs, but I don't see anything on CG4 here, just the area. Thumbs down
An Objective-prism Survey of Ha-emmission-line stars of a field in Puppis


Limited use. Another old one, sort of outlines the CG4 area. Cited by others. Thumbs down
Title: Probing environment and circumstellar disk evolution in triggered star forming regions: IRAC and MIPS imaging of bright-rimmed globules CG4/SA101 and CG30/31

Authors: Kim, Jinyoung Serena; Sherry, Wiiliam

Limited use. Spitzer application, but directly related to what we are doing. No paper to read. Thumbs down
Title: Star Formation in the Gum Nebula: Cometary Globules CG4/6/SA101

Authors: Kim, Jinyoung S.; Walter, F. M.; Wolk, S. J.; Sherry, W. H.; Foster, M.

Limited use. Just an abstract. No paper to read. Thumbs down

--Let me know if the first couple are helpful. I feel like I'm finding interesting stuff, but not what we really need. --klm

--CJohnson 17:02, 03 February 2010 (CST)

J2000 coordinates for H-alpha emission stars (relates to Table 3 in Reipurth 1992):

Star RA J2000 Dec J2000 V (B-V) (U-B) Region
CG-Halpha 1 07 30 37.77 -47 25 07.21 >17 --- --- Sa 101
CG-Halpha 2 07 30 57.63 -46 56 12.50 >17 --- --- Sa 101
CG-Halpha 3 07 31 10.89 -47 00 33.40 14.99 1.60 0.91 Sa 101
CG-Halpha 4 07 31 21.92 -46 59 45.14 14.59 1.40 0.92 Sa 101
CG-Halpha 5 07 31 36.65 -47 00 14.13 15.25 1.26 0.23 Sa 101
CG-Halpha 6 07 31 37.45 -47 00 22.19 14.21 1.42 0.90 Sa 101
CG-Halpha 7 07 33 26.92 -46 48 43.51 13.97 1.19 0.84 CG 4
CG-Halpha 8 07 15 40.86 -48 31 27.16 15.33 1.39 0.13 CG 13
PHalpha 92 08 28 40.73 -33 46 23.17 13.38 1.27 0.91 CG 22


Existing observations

Wiki page on searching Leopard is part of How do I download data from the Spitzer Telescope?. You probably want specifically How can I find any prior observations for an object? Visualization instructions:

--CJohnson 17:04, 03 February 2010 (CST)

More from the Reipurth 1992 article ...

"CG-Halpha 7 is situated just north of CG 4. It has a red continuum with a strong MgH and shows only H-alpha in emission. The spectrum is classified as K5."



Viv's assignment in the group was to organize the Education portion of our proposal. What if we make a case for the importance of:

  1. Teacher/Student/Scientist Scientific Research within the context of today's national and education initiatives.
  2. NITARP as a Professional Learning Community offering a Center of Strength in Science Teacher Leadership
  3. Include the variety of expected student populations and levels of participation, considering how we might measure impact across these groups.

Each team member: Please briefly describe your own science education objectives for your student team, your plan for selecting students, and your expectation for being able to influence a broader community of teachers and/or students through this NITARP proposal. If you have any ideas about assessment or ideas about competencies the students will demonstrate as their knowledge and skills grow throughout the project, please make note of them. It would be nice to be able to track performance as we progress through the project. Also we should probably include items such as taking responsibility as members of a team, mentoring others, etc.

[1] Link to a previous project Star Formation in Lynds Dark Nebulae in which Chelen was one of the team members. Refer to this to see how they framed their education section. Science Framework for the 2009 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) by the National Assessment Governing Board, 800 North Capitol Street, N.W., Suite 825, Washington, DC 20002-4233 [2] U.S. Department of Education 'The framework reflects the nature and practice of science. The National Standards and Benchmarks include standards that address science as inquiry, nature of science, history of science, and the manmade world. The framework should emphasize the importance of these aspects of science education and should include the expectation that students will understand the nature and practice of science. page 5

An assessment framework is a subset of the achievement universe from which assessment developers must choose to develop sets of items that can be assessed within time and resource constraints. Hence, the science content to be assessed by NAEP has been identified as that considered central to the Physical, Life, and Earth and Space Sciences. As a result, some important outcomes of science education that are difficult and time consuming to measure (such as habits of mind, sustained inquiry, and collaborative research), but valued by scientists, science educators, and the business community, will be only partially represented in the framework and in the NAEP Science Assessment. Moreover, the wide range of science standards in the guiding national documents that could be incorporated into the framework had to be reduced in number so as to allow some indepth probing of fundamental science content. As a result, the framework and the specifications represent a careful distillation that is not a complete representation of the original universe of achievement outcomes desirable for science education. p8

TIME AND RESOURCE CONSTRAINTS What NAEP can assess is limited by time and resources. Like most standardized assessments, NAEP is an “on-demand” assessment. It ascertains what students know and can do in a limited amount of time (50 minutes for paper-and-pencil questions and, for a subset of students sampled, an additional 30 minutes for hands-on performance or interactive computer tasks) and with limited access to resources (e.g., reference materials, feedback from peers and teachers, opportunities for reflection and revision). The national and state standards, however, contain goals that require extended time (days, weeks, or months). Therefore, to assess student achievement in the kinds of extended activities that are a central feature of the national and state standards and many science curricula, it would be necessary to know (for example) the quality of students’: • reasoning while framing their research questions; • planning for data collection and the execution of the plan • abilities to meet unpredictable challenges that arise during an actual, ongoing scientific investigation; • lines of argument in deciding how to alter their experimental approach in the light of new evidence; • engagement with fellow students and/or the teacher in interpreting an observation or result and deciding what to do about it; and • deliberations and reasoning when settling on the defensible conclusions that might be drawn from their work.

Like other on-demand assessments, NAEP cannot be used to draw conclusions about student achievement with respect to the full range of goals of science education. States, districts, schools, and teachers can supplement NAEP and other standardized assessments to assess the full range of science education standards. In addition to describing the content and format of an examination, assessment frameworks like this one signal to the public and to teachers the elements of a subject that are important. The absence of extended inquiry in NAEP, however, is not intended to signal its relative importance in the curriculum. Indeed, because of the significance of inquiry in science education, the framework promotes as much consideration of inquiry as can be accomplished within the time and resources available for assessment. pages 8-9 '

I like these three strands. Great idea, Viv. --chj 17:19 CST 13-Jan-2010.

Nice Topic Breakdown; would be difficult to quantify ed outcome at such diverse ages/locations/populations as exist at Breck-Yerkes-OPRF High-Pierce College, any other way. --Mallory 18:41, 18 January 2010 (PST) Bold text

test--Mallory 15:27, 26 January 2010 (PST)

CG4-Spitzer Ed Plan For Pierce College.doc

Students will be recruited by in-class announcements and through (large, inclusive) Pierce College Astronomy Society. Astron Society semester sched is always distributed throughout campus, and meetings announced on marquee/college newspaper; (26,000 enrollment.) Astron Soc Semester Sched will include on it, “Use live data from NASA space telescopes; use cool software, plus your own analytical skills to make science discoveries! Join Team today!” Notation on your college transcript.

Application for team inclusion will ask students: how interested are you in the actual process of science-designing activities to accomplish specific purpose + data gathering + analysis + reach conclusions. Are you willing to devote extra time to read, learn some new applications, and plan the work we will do? Are you free to go to Cal Tech for three days, June 14 – 16? Application will also ask: college major, math-computer-lab abilities, analysis and interpretation skills, dependability, ambition!

Students incorporated into team must know physical science basics in; matter states, spectroscopy, magnitude scale/photometry, Newton’s + Kepler’s + Wien’s + Stefan-Boltzmann Laws, Conservation Laws, nebulae and star formation, inquiry design. Any student who comes from another instructor, can be evaluated by that person.

Science Ed Objectives and Performance Expectations: One of the major current science ed objectives is for students to be able to take data and extract meaning from it. That is a huge part of why I am glad to be part of NITARP/learn how to do that! Students will have to plan their own data gathering, organization, and analysis, to answer specific questions. They’ll have to be able to revise methods if the selected actions don’t yield answers; use Teamwork in data collection and analysis, and reaching conclusions. Students will have to be able to explain and defend their conclusions.

There are significant ways in which NITARP can be shared within my institution, and every one of them builds the educational strength of the college! First, I’m strengthened significantly from research/software/process exposure, already. What has gone into my brain will come out in my teaching, and thus be shared. Students who enter the program receive significant boosts in their own scientific skills and processes, then they will share with other students and multiply the effects that way. Team Students will be specifically directed to ask the ‘more modestly endowed’ students for input, and then to consider that input thoughtfully. There is a monthly Faculty Lunch, and guess who will be speakers at that event. My department has periodic meetings and it will be keen to invite students to give presentations to those eager ears. Other instructors can ask for presentations.

My students are Special! Many are first generation College Students, whose parents don’t speak English. Some have babies; struggle with money, time, and academic proficiency. They need to be reinforced in their desire to obtain an education, and they need education perks. Other students/smaller percentage, are spoiled brats from wealthy surrounding suburbs, who think their instructors should do their work and then give them good grades! Often they’re academically capable, but too ‘entitled’ to reach for proficiency; just as great a loss if they under-achieve.

--Mallory 17:35, 26 January 2010 (PST)

Deaf Astronomers

Harry Lang has done a lot of research on Deaf Scientists which includes

John Goodricke, British Astronomer (1764-1786), discovered variability of stars Algol, Beta Lyrae, Delta Cephei

Methods and Materials for Teaching Science to Deaf Students

Curriculum Guide for Discussing Deaf Scientists at Rochester Institute of Technology Developed by Fina Perez lists:

Annie Jump Cannon, American Astronomer 1863 - 1941 She was the "Dean of Women Astronomers." She classified 1/3 of a million stars.

Henrietta Swan Leavitt, American Astronomer 1868 - 1921 She discovered many Cepheids in the magellanic Clouds. She was considered for the Nobel Prize for her discovery of the period-luminostiy relationship but she had died of cancer.

Olaf Hassel, Norwegian Astronomer 1898 - 1972 He discovered the comet and a nova. The comet was named after him.

Sir John Ambrose Fleming, British Electrical Scientist 1849 - 1945 He served as consultant to Thomas Edison's company in London. He developed the rectifier (electric valve). It is known as diode vacuum tube in the United States.

Frederick A.P. Barnard, American Scientist / Educator 1809-1889 He established an astronomical observatory at University of Alabama. He was president of Columbia College.

Robert Grant Aitken, American Astronomer 1864-1951 He discovered 3,000 double star systems. He wrote "Double Star Measures". A crater on the moon is named after him.

Gallaudet Deaf Women and Men in Science website has a listing of deaf scientists which includes the following astronomers.


Robert Grant Aitken Astronomer Field: astronomy

Frederick Barnard Astronomer Field: astronomy

Annie Jump Cannon Astronomer Field: astronomy

John Amborse Fleming (deceased) Astronomer, 18th century Field: astronomy

John Goodricke (deceased) Astronomer, 18th century Field: astronomy

Frank Ross Gray Lensmaker for Telescopes Field: astronomy

Olaf Hassel Astronomer Field: astronomy

Henrietta Swan Leavitt Astronomer Field: astronomy

These are amazing. I never knew. Kevin

--CJohnson 19:20 CST, 31 January 2010

CHJ's ed piece (largely "borrowed from a previous proposal) Through archival data gathered for this CG4 project, students and other teachers will learn about the physical properties of light, such as wavelength and flux, emission and absorption. They will gain experience in measuring size and distance and dealing with astronomical quantities. Students will be able to compare the images obtained by IRAC, MIPS, and IRAS to learn about spatial resolution. Evidence will be presented to help students understand how the universe is changing, how stars and planets are forming, and how stars evolve from birth to eventual death. Combining images at different wavelengths, students will be able to produce false-color images that enhance the features of young stellar objects and the ISM composition and structures.

In addition to the image datasets, students will also have the extracted data tables of sources and fluxes at each wavelength. Using spreadsheet and graphing programs, students will be able to generate color-color plots with these authentic data. They will access the datasets already available in the Spitzer archive to compare these observations with those from similar clusters. Students will also be able to test their own ideas for color-color plots that could be useful in determining stellar properties. All activities will be adapted to be age-appropriate, and shared with other teachers.

Using archival Spitzer data is a prime example of authentic research and the process of scientific inquiry. Students can assume an active role in the process of project development, teamwork, data collection and analysis, interpretation of results, and formal scientific presentations. They will learn about the instrumentation used in infrared astronomy and the necessity of space-based telescopes. These experiences will help teachers and students meet the goals outlined in state/national science and technology standards. The national science standards addressed in this project are; astronomical observations, small bodies, interplanetary dust, electromagnetic spectrum, temperatures, the structure and properties of matter, interactions of energy and matter, the origin and evolution of the Earth/Planet/Solar systems, data analysis and the abilities and utilization of technological design.

The false-color images that this group will produce will be useful in public presentations. Dramatic illustrations of YSOs and star-forming regions will be shared with other teachers via workshops, publication of developed articles, adapted educational lessons and released images in various magazines like NSTA, local papers, presentations and the coolwiki web site as described below.

Lessons that address STEM skills and concepts will be developed by this NITARP teacher group and disseminated to teachers nationwide. These workshops and lessons will promote inquiry-based learning and interest in science, technology, and space research.

If we don’t find anything in these clouds, it will also be useful – the scientific inquiry process can by its nature be surprising. We might find lots of interesting things, or we might not find anything. This is the nature of science.

Educational and public outreach can be accomplished through a resource recently developed to enhance communication under “distance-learning” conditions. “The Cool Wiki ( is designed to provide a place for teachers, students, and scientists to interact and share the materials they've developed, work on new materials, and work on current projects. The wiki also provides a resource for other teachers to learn how to use the materials we've developed. The wiki is a dynamic place, constantly changing and growing! We also use the Cool Wiki to maintain contact among the teachers and students while working on the project.

Team Spitzer at Breck School. For the past 14 months, nine students have been investigating Lynds Dark Nebulae near the Galactic Equator in hopes of finding YSOs. As soon as this project is completed, three students will be added to the current team to join the CG4 efforts.

Education component at Oak Park and River Forest High School

Part I: Selected students will become proficient in publishing scientific research.

Procedures: The students at OPRFHS will be selected on a competitive basis. They will learn the basics of publishing scientific research, then teach others how to do that research in the future. Students will learn the basics of doing a literature search, gathering and analyzing data, then communicating this to others.

Topic Sub topics Sub sub topics
Topic Deciding on topic

Literature searching

Data collection

Data analysis

Scientific Imaging

Publishing results

Image Analysis

Measuring values

Mosaic Images

Content Electromagnetic spectrum


Space telescopes


Cometary Globules

Stellar evolution

HR diagram

Star birth regions

Students will share their experience: Teaching other students at OPRFHS

Doing public presentations on the findings

School Board

Percy Julian Symposium

Chicago Astronomical Society

Oak Park and River Forest Astronomy Club

Hands-On Universe annual meeting

Part II: Teaching personal scientific research in the Physical Science classroom.

Procedures: Students will use an article from the popular press claiming the LCROSS spacecraft found water on the Moon to do scientific research on a topic. Students will learn the basics of doing a literature search, gathering and analyzing data, then communicating this to others.

Students read an article on finding water on the Moon. Their questions lead to digging deeper into the topic. How did they find water? How did they know it was water? What did they use to test it? Where did they find it? So what?

Students and teacher will look for new information and data on how they found water. The class will look at the instruments used and the procedures the instrument might have followed to find water. We will look for the data that showed there was water on the Moon. During this research there will be four mini-conferences for students to present findings to others in the class. The findings will explain a concept, instrument, or measurement so that the entire class can understand the articles and press releases.

The teacher will provide labs to help understand new concepts. Labs will include Infrared Active Astronomy; building Stanford Solar Center spectroscopes and identifying gas discharge tubes and flame tests; using color filters with astronomical images; water hydrolysis; and fuel cell cars. These along with other labs will try to answer questions that come up during the research.

The final product will be a poster session explaining how the class knows there is water on the Moon. The posters will present the evidence we discovered and the data uncovered.

New questions

In continuing CG4/Low Mass Star Formation background research, this issue is of interest,and understanding may lead to further idea development: What do Outflows from regions of increased density really represent? It could have catastrophic influence on star formation? --Mallory 12:48, 20 January 2010 (PST)

Proposal versions

media:cg4_ver1.0.doc from Chelen, monday Feb 8

how-to page on uploading a file to the wiki because lots of people from many teams have been asking...