- 1 Planning for work session June 29 and/or June 30th for Oil City Students
- 2 Proposal for Radio Observations of T-Tauri Candidates in IC2118
- 3 T-Tauri/IC2118 Presentation for Astroblast 2007
- 4 Monitoring T-Tauri Stars using the Perth Obervatory Telescope
- 5 Chandra X-Ray Data
- 6 Kitt Peak H-alpha Data
- 7 USNO U, B, V, R, and I Data
- 8 Outflows or Jets
- 9 Multi Wavelength Composite Images
Planning for work session June 29 and/or June 30th for Oil City Students
Matt, Matt, Nick, Greg, Danni, Alexis, and Sandy,
We had tentatively planned to meet to work on Spitzer stuff and get ready for California on Friday June 29 and/or Saturday June 30. We could meet at the high school something that might be a bit more relaxed is to meet here at my house near Pine City. Please make comments here at the Wiki site as to what your schedule is like and whether or not you can make a work session. Please do this ASAP so we can decide what will work.
Thanks, Mr. Spuck
Anytime on Saturday the 30th is good for me. I can not make it on the 29th because my brother is arriving from New Jersey that day. Where exactly in Pine City do you live? Could you send directions to my email? Matt H.
FROM SPUCK - - Turn LEFT onto E 1ST ST / US-62 N. Continue to follow US-62 N. Go 2.9 miles Map
- US-62 N becomes PA-157. Go 13.5 miles Map
- Turn SLIGHT RIGHT onto PA-208. Go 3.7 miles Map
- Turn RIGHT onto MILLERSTOWN RD. Go 1.4 miles
- Gravel lane is on right hand side. Come up lane about 1000 feet.
How late into saturday are you planning to work saturday b/c i can't be there until like 1 o'clock earliest!! MATT W.
FROM SPUCK - Is there another day that works better for everyone ... for example Monday morning July 2 into MOnday afternoon??? Please let me know what your schedule is. Also, keep in mind when you make comments that this discussion page is something that can be viewed by the entire world. This is ok, because we want other teacher/student research teams to see first hand the both the good and bad of trying to conduct student teacher research. We are kind of like the "reality TV show" only on the web. :) Thanks, please respond ASAP. Mr. Spuck
I am gonna be gone from the July 1st to the 6th in Virginia. I was talking to Nick Kelley and he was saying that he can make it on the 30th anytime like me. Whatever time Matt W. can make the meeting is fine with me and Nick!! Also Greg is currently in Washington DC with a biology seminar and will not be back till July 3rd. He wanted me to fill him in with all the info he is gonna miss when he gets back. Matt H.
FROM SPUCK - Ok ... it looks like we will meet on Saturday (June 30th). Has anyone spoken to Danni or Alexis?? So where do we want to meet and what time? I'm not sure what condition my room is at the high school because of summer cleaning. I will know more tomorrow when I go up to the school. If we meet at my place, I think we should start BY 10:00 AM and plan on going till about 5:00 PM. If your parents could bring you out, then I could get you back to the Oil City area by 6:00 PM on Saturday, or they can pick you up. Let me know what you think. Matt H. ... have you been in recent contact with Nick? Why has he not posted on the Wiki? Thanks.
I have been talking to Nick about our upcoming meeting this weekend. However right now Nick is grounded and I believe he can not use the internet.(not sure totally) Also that time at your house is fine with me. Though I might have to be leaving an hour early but right now I'm not certain, I will find out tomorrow and post it up here. Also I will try to get a hold of Nick to tell him about the meeting. Matt H.
SaturdaY IS THE BEST DAy for me i work 11pm to 7am sundaye night and i work 11pm 7am monday night so that wont work
FROM SPUCK - I'll assume the comments above are from Nick Kelley. I'f wrong please let me know. I checked my room out yesterday at the high school and everything has been removed for cleaning. So I guess it is my house (see directions above). Plan on arriving between 9:30 and 10:00 AM and we will plan on stopping right around 5:00 PM. Either your parents could pick you up at 5:00 PM or I'll be going to Oil City around 6:00 PM on Saturday and I could give you a ride. If I have this correct it will be Nick at Matt H, with Matt W coming by in the afternoon. Anyone else?
Sounds right to me... Matt W.
DANI- account up and running. w00o
FROM SPUCK - Dani, Matt H, Matt W, and Nick K met and worked on the following: Using the Perth Telescope, Radio Proposal, Wiki Discussion Links, WZ Sge Observations, Review of Luisa's Tutorial, Getting Ready for California Visit, Astroblast 2007 Presentation
Proposal for Radio Observations of T-Tauri Candidates in IC2118
Here is the original proposal we sent in... Matt Walentosky
Confirmation of T-Tauri Candidates in IC2118 OCHS Research Team Oil City Sr. High School, Oil City, PA Teacher: Tim Spuck, 2006
Tauri Star- a star, with mass from 0.5 to 2.5 solar masses, in an early stage of formation at the which interaction with its associated nebulosity, as well as possible internal instabilities, make it variable in luminosity and render its spectrum very peculiar, also known as nebular variable.
Introduction Our research group from Oil City High School in Oil City Pennsylvania is applying for time on the NRAO GBT telescope in Greenbank West Virginia. We plan to use the telescope to image the Witch Head Nebula (IC2118) as part of our ongoing T-Tauri research project.
T-Tauri stars are low mass sun-like stars that are in their early stages of formation, and are found in regions of dense nebulosity. Using the Spitzer Space Telescope’s IRAC and MIPS imagers, members of our student research team (Sandy Weiser and Matt Heath) and our advisor (Tim Spuck) imaged IC 2118 in summer of 2006. During data analysis this past summer, the team identified approximately 200 potential T-Tauri candidates using spectral energy distribution (SEDS) plots and color-color diagrams. However, the SED’s were made using only infrared data. In order to generate more accurate SED’s, and additional color-color diagrams, we must obtain magnitude data for the T-Tauri candidates at radio wavelengths.
Using the GBT we plan to create a mosaic of the region imaged by Spitzer at radio wavelengths. The GBT is necessary because it has sufficient aperture to detect many of the fainter candidates that we otherwise would not be able to detect using smaller radio telescopes, within the National Radio Telescope Observatories.
We are looking at new stars in the IC2118 region (Witch Head Nebula) in order to complete our portfolio of images from this region. Considering that T-Tauri stars emit radio waves sometimes up to 1000 times more strongly than a mature star (Mendez). We need the visible radio wave images to examine exactly if these new star candidates are T-Tauri stars. It is important for us to use the specific telescope because of its size. This telescope is the only telescope large enough to pick up the faint images of the T-Tauri stars that we have chosen by looking at the data that we have received from Spitzer Science Laboratory in Pasadena California, as well as the Kitt Peak .9 meter and 200 in. spectra telescope in Palomar. This data show that certain stars that we have picked to look at through the radio wave filter is the GBT. Our main goal is to make a mosaic of the IC2118 region from the images that we receive from GBT. Our priority at the observatory is to collect images at a few centimeters. These images are vital to our research team because we need to compare them to the results that we gathered from our previous time looking at the IC2118 region through the Spitzer Space Telescope, Kitt Peak .9 meter, and Palomar 200 inch spectra telescope.
As to why we are doing this project we are doing this for the same reason that any scientist does research. We are doing this to further understand and comprehend our universe and solar system particularly our sun. Since the time has long since past that we can observe our star from a T-Tauri stage. We must do the next best thing by observing similar stars from the T-Tauri stage.
Our project consists of:
T-tauri Star- a star, with mass from 0.5 to 2.5 solar masses, in an early stage of formation at the which interaction with its associated nebulosity, as well as possible internal instabilities, make it variable in luminosity and render its spectrum very peculiar, also known as nebular variable.
IC2118 is the region of the sky we wish to study b/c of the large presence of T-Tauri stars in the Witch Head Nebula which is part of the IC2118.
We believe T-Tauri stars are particularly important to study because they resemble our solar system’s star the sun so much. In order for us to completely understand our star, we must understand how it existed in all of its phases. Since the time as our sun’s existence as a T-Tauri star has come and gone we must do the next best thing by studying a observing similar stars.
The frequency we want to observe the region IC2118 is between two to three centimeters. This is the frequency that we were advised most T-tauri stars emit radio waves at (Dr. Roberto Mendez, Univ. of Hawaii). Using the standard equation Frequency = speed of light/wavelength. We have determined that the best way to observe T-Tauri stars is at 10 GHz and 15GHz.
We will use IDL to determine radio magnitudes. We will use Microsoft Excel to plot spectral energy distributions (SEDS) and to make color-color diagrams.
We want to know how many candidate T-tauri stars are actually T-tauri stars. We will be summarizing our findings in a formal research paper to be submitted to the TLRBSE Journal. In addition, members of the group will present their work to the Pennsylvania Government in Harrisburg May 12th -13th; as well as at Astroblast at the Oil Region Astronomical Society. We will also be entering this project into the Pittsburgh Regional Science and Engineering Fair, the Pennsylvania Science Teachers Association Annual Meeting, and hopefully the 2008 American Astronomical Society Conference. Our team understands that time on your telescope is very prestigious and we will accurately and wisely us any time you would be willing to grant us. As to the time tables, we would prefer, October seems to be a good time to view our candidates, they would be visible from 1 am to 8 am.
Nicholas Kelley, Matt Heath, Matt Walentosky, Sandra Weiser, Timothy Spuck
SUPPORT INFORMATION - T-Tauri Candidates Emit Radio
FROM MATT WALENTOSKY 6/30/2007 @ 2:30 PM - Two Abstracts Below
Title: Radio emission from pre-main-sequence stars Authors: Skinner, Stephen Lee
Affiliation: AA(Colorado Univ., Boulder.) Publication: Ph.D. Thesis Colorado Univ., Boulder. Publication Date: 01/1992 Category: Space Radiation Origin: STI
Abstract This study focuses on the properties and physical origin of radio continuum emission from pre-main-sequence (PMS) stars. These are young stars, typically less than a few million years old, and are still in a phase of gravitational contraction that will ultimately be halted by the onset of hydrogen burning in their cores. First, I address the question of the origin of centimeter continuum emission in intermediate mass (approx. equal to 3-20 solar mass) PMS stars, the so-called 'Herbig Ae/Be stars'. A high-sensitivity radio survey of 57 such stars was undertaken using the Very Large Array and Australia Telescope, resulting in the detection of twelve stars. These observations provide a homogenous data base consisting of information on source sizes, radio luminosities, variability timescales, circular polarization, and spectral energy distributions in the wavelength range 2-20 cm. Using these data along with previously published spectroscopy, I conclude that centimeter radio emission from Herbig Ae/Be stars is predominantly thermal and in many cases wind-related. An unexpected result of the above program was the serendipitous detection of circularly polarized radio emission in the low mass (approx. equal to 1 solar mass) PMS star Hubble 4, a member of the class of 'weak-lined T Tauri stars' (WTTS). This provides some of the most convincing evidence to date for the existence of ordered magnetic fields in WTTS. In a second observing program, I have searched for evidence of cold (less than or equal to 50 K) circumstellar dust around WTTS, which might exist in the form of remnant disks. Of the sixteen WTTS that were observed in the wavelength range 450-1100 microns using the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope, only V836 Tau was detected. Its spectral energy distribution longward of 10 microns is consistent with that expected for a flat, axisymmetric circumstellar disk of mass approx. equal to 0.04 solar mass (= 42 Jupiter masses). This star may be a rare example of an object in which disk dispersal is underway, but not yet complete.
Title: Centimeter Radio Emission from Low-Mass Weak T Tauri Stars in Taurus-Auriga Authors: Chiang, Eugene; Phillips, R. B.
Affiliation: AA(MIT), AB(MIT Haystack Observatory) Publication: American Astronomical Society, 185th AAS Meeting, #48.08; Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, Vol. 26, p.1388 Publication Date: 12/1994 Origin: AAS Abstract Copyright:(c) 1994: American Astronomical Society
Abstract We report on the results of a sensitive survey for lambda 3.6 cm radio emission from low-mass, weak T Tauri (WTT) stars in the Taurus-Auriga cloud complex. The target population consists of stars in the Herbig and Bell Catalog of spectral type K7 or later, and W(Hα ) <= 10 Angstroms. Of the 28 such stars surveyed using the Very Large Array down to detection thresholds of ~ 0.1 mJy, 7 (possibly 8) are observed to emit at strengths ranging from 0.1 to 2 mJy. Five of these young radio stars are newly discovered in our survey: V827 Tau and V710 Tau B are discovered to be relatively strong sources of mJy emission, while IW Tau, UX Tau B, and the possible detection LkHa 332-G1 form a new population of relatively weak emitters. Our radio survey and complementary surveys are pooled, and of 43 WTT stars K7 or later in Tau-Aur, 14 are now known to be radio emitters at lambda 6 and lambda 3.6 cm. Correlations between radio luminosity and other stellar parameters have been attempted but generally yield null results. Wide binarity (component separations in excess of 0.13, 20 AU) appears unrelated to radio emission, as does spectral type. Furthermore, we find no convincing evidence for the extreme youth of radio stars, contrary to claims in the literature over the past decade. While we do find that radio-loud stars in our sample are formally younger than the radio-quiet stars by about 0.5 Myr, the reality of this relatively small age difference is highly suspect given uncertainties in the placement of these stars on the HR diagram. Moreover, Monte Carlo-type calculations involving distributing the stars on both the HR diagram and local CO gas density cast doubts on any differences between the radio stars and the general WTT population. We conclude that the age effect for low-mass radio WTT stars in Tau-Aur, if real, is much smaller than previous estimations by factors of 4-10. It is also possible centimeter wavelength surveys to date have still not properly described the radio luminosity function of low-mass WTT stars in Tau-Aur, and we urge future observations of these young stars with denser temporal coverage.
FROM SPUCK 6/30/2007 @ 2:35pm
I'm not sure that we will be able to use the GBT telescope in Green Bank for observations. The beamwidth at 10-15 GHz is probably too big.
Here are the specs for the GBT Beamwidth (Table 3) Diffraction beamwidth (FWHM) 8 GHz it is 90", 20 GHz it is 36", 50 GHz it is 14"
Here are some questions from Sue Ann Heatherly at NRAO-Green Bank - One question I have is: is the resolving power of the GBT sufficient to distinguish spatially between individual stars? Does large scale emission exist within the nebula that will confuse your results?
The VLA is probably the only instrument that can be used.
Synthesized Beamwidth (arcsec)depending on configuration
Nick Kelley 6/30/2007 3:00PM
400 cm 24.0" 80.0" 260.0" 850.0"
90 cm 6.0" 17.0" 56.0" 200.0"
20 cm 1.4 " 3.9" 12.5" 44.0"
6 cm 0.4 " 1.2""" 3.9 " 14.0 "
3.6 cm 0.24 " 0.7" 2.3 " 8.4 "
2 cm 0.14 " 0.4 " 1.2" 3.9"
1.3 cm 0.08 " 0.3" 0.9 "2.8"
0.7 cm 0.05 0.15 0.47 1 restricting my creativity
T-Tauri/IC2118 Presentation for Astroblast 2007
Oil City High School students will be presenting August 11 at the Oil Region Astronomical Observatory
FROM Nicholas James Kelley
Astroblast is amazin ... see pic
Monitoring T-Tauri Stars using the Perth Obervatory Telescope
Generating Light Curves
Using Perth Telescope
1. Check to see what the current sky conditions are by checking the live camera
2. Check to see what the current weather conditions are
3. Weather forecast for Perth - http://www.bom.gov.au/weather/wa/
Log into telescope if conditions look good.
EMAIL email@example.com for telescope access
Chandra X-Ray Data
To date no X-Ray data for IC2118 has been located. If you know of any please contact Tim Spuck at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Kitt Peak H-alpha Data
In January of 2007 students from Oil City High School used the 0.9 Meter Telescope at Kitt peak to image regions of IC2118 in H-alpha.'
matt was one one of them!!
USNO U, B, V, R, and I Data
U, B, V, R, and I data will be used to generate more accurate SEDs for the T-Tauri Candidates
Outflows or Jets
Visible outflows or jets are strong evidence that a candidate is indeed a T-Tauri Star
Multi Wavelength Composite Images
Images and Methods
FROM SPUCK 6/30/2007 See Image Below- IC 2118 3.6 µm (blue), 5.8 µm (green), 8.0 µm (red) tri-color composite generated using MaxIm DL. (By M. Heath, N. Kelley, P. Morton, M. Walentosky, S. Weiser – Oil City High School, Oil City, PA)